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Pharmacist Career and Jobs

By: Pharma Jobs | Views: 4959 | Date: 09-Jun-2012

Pharmacist CareerPharmacist jobs requires pharmacists to dispense prescription drugs to patients. They provide information about those drugs and help patients understand the instructions their doctors or other health practitioners provided. They monitor their patients health and progress to make sure their medications are working effectively and safely.Pharmacist jobsPharmacist jobs requires pharmacists to dispense prescription drugs to patients. They provide information about those drugs and help patients

Pharmacist Career and Jobs

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Clinical Pharmacist Jobs
Clinical pharmacy is a branch of pharmacy where the pharmacist role is to provide patient care. It is a practice of pharmaceutical care to provide individualized, optimized pharmacotherapy to improve patient outcome. Clinical pharmacist is an important part of the health care team. The pharmacist works in coordination with the doctors for the better patient health care. They have some very specific roles which aim at assuring patient safety. Clinical pharmacists work in collaboration with physicians and other health care professionals. Clinical pharmacists have extensive education in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, socio behavioral and clinical sciences. Most clinical pharmacists have a Doctor of Pharmacy Degree (Pharm.D.) and many have completed one or more years of post graduate training. Within the system of health care, clinical pharmacists are experts in the therapeutic use of medications. They provide medication therapy evaluations and recommendations to patients and other health care professionals.

Clinical pharmacists may participate in all stages of the medication use process, including drug ordering, transcribing, dispensing, administering, and monitoring. The specific activities of clinical pharmacists vary. Clinical Pharmacy gives us opportunity to use our knowledge to improve patient treatment and also to get ourselves recognized as the ones who are equally important and knowledgeable as doctors. The objectives of clinical pharmacy are to strengthen the physicians clinical and therapeutic knowledge and to develop his abilities in the clinical application of drugs inpatient care. The development of a new drug, from its initial synthesis until its approval and registration by the regulatory agency, goes through different stages in which clinical trials are very important. The use of any drug in humans requires the fulfillment of previous valid clinical trials, which ensure the efficacy and safety of the drug and guarantee that the basic ethical rights concerning the patients are respected. There is a big involvement of clinical pharmacists in these clinical trails.

The responsibility of a clinical pharmacist jobs includes:
1.Prescribing drugs.
2.Administering drugs.
3.Patient counseling regarding safe and rational use of drug.
4.Therapeutic drug monitoring.
5.Providing drug information at the drug information and poison information centre.
6.Disease State Management.
7.Application of Electronic Data Processing(EDP).
8.Drug Evaluation and Selection.
9.Medication Therapy Management.

A clinical pharmacist can work in private or government hospital or can practice independently as pharmacy practitioners. Many foreign universities offer courses in clinical pharmacy like:

1.PG Certificate in Clinical Pharmacy.
2.PG Diploma in Clinical Pharmacy.
3.Master of Clinical Pharmacy.
4.Doctor of Clinical Pharmacy.

One must have a Bachelors/college Degree or professional license in pharmacy. There is a great demand for clinical pharmacists all over the globe and are also paid a high salary like one can earn $89,000 in The Dentroit Medical Center Harper University Hospital, $79,000 in the St. Francis Healthcare System of Hawaii and $77,000 in the Detroit Medical Center.



Compounding Pharmacist Jobs

Pharmaceutical compounding is a branch of pharmacy that continues to play the crucial role of drug development. Compounding pharmacists and medicinal chemists develop and test pharmaceutical formulation for new drugs so that the active ingredients are effective, stable, easy to use, and acceptable to patients. Compounding pharmacies provide medications that are individually formulated to meet the patients specific health care needs. Compounding is the practice of preparing drugs in new forms, that is the mixing of drugs by a pharmacist, physician or veterinarian to fit the unique needs of a patient.

For example, if a drug manufacturer only provides a drug as a tablet, a compounding pharmacist might make a medicated lollipop that contains the drug. Patients who have difficulty swallowing the tablet may prefer to suck the medicated lollipop instead. This may be done for medically necessary reasons, such as to change the form of the medication from a solid pill to a liquid, to avoid a non-essential ingredient that the patient is allergic to, or to obtain the exact dose needed. It may also be done for voluntary reasons, such as adding favorite flavors to a medication. Another form of compounding is by mixing different strengths, (g, mg, mcg) of capsules or tablets to yield the desire therapy indicated by the doctor. This form of compounding is found at community or hospital pharmacies or in-home administration therapy. Compounding pharmacies specialize in compounding, although many also dispense the same non-compounded drugs that patients can obtain from community pharmacies.

Physicians may prescribe an individually compounded medication for a patient with an unusual health need. This allows the physician to tailor a prescription to each individual. Compounding preparations are especially prevalent for:

1.Patients requiring limited dosage strengths, such as a very small dose for infants.
2.Patients requiring a different formulation, such as turning a pill into a liquid or transdermal gel for people who cant swallow pills due to disability.
3.Patients requiring an allergen-free medication, such as one without gluten or colored dyes.
4.Patients who need drugs that have been discontinued by pharmaceutical manufacturers because of low profitability.
5.Children who want flavored additives in liquid drugs, usually so that the medication tastes like candy or fruit.
6.Veterinary medicine, for a change in dose, change to a more easily-administered form (such as from a pill to a liquid or transdermal gel), or to add a flavor more palatable to the animal.
7.Many types of bio-identical hormone replacement therapy where compounding is used to promote (without justification) the idea of individualized prescriptions.

The most common bio-identical hormones are estrogen’s and progesterone’s designed to relieve the symptoms of menopause and hormonal imbalances and compounding pharmacies are the source of these hormones. Compounding pharmacies make these hormones from ingredients that come from plants such as yams.

Compounding pharmacist jobs are comparatively less then other but offers good scope and package, minimum education must be that of a researcher post masters degree. In India, major pharma companies who have a research and development wing in India hires compunding pharmacists.



Hospital Pharmacist Jobs
Hospital pharmacist work in a hospital pharmacy service, within the public sector. They are responsible for ensuring the safe, appropriate and cost-effective use of medicines. Hospital pharmacists use their specialist knowledge to dispense drugs and advise patients about the medicines they have been prescribed. They work collaboratively with other health care professionals to devise the most appropriate drug treatment for patients. Some pharmacists are also involved in manufacturing required drug treatments. The role of a person doing hospital pharmacist jobs sometimes extends outside the hospital, with responsibility for medicines in health centers, nursing homes, hospices and general practitioners (GP) surgeries.

Hospital pharmacists and trained pharmacy technicians compound sterile products for patients including total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and other medications like neonatal antibiotics and chemotherapy. This is a complex process that requires adequate training of personnel, quality assurance of products, and adequate facilities. Some hospital pharmacies have decided to out-store high-risk preparations and some other compounding functions to companies that specialize in compounding. Every hospital has required ICU facilities. The work of a hospital pharmacist includes:

1.Participating in ward rounds, taking patient drug histories and contributing to the treatment decision making process which includes highlighting a drugs potential side effects, identifying harmful interactions with other drugs and assessing the suitability of treatments for patients with particular health conditions.
2.Counseling with physicians, nurses and other fellow health care professionals to ensure the delivery of safe, effective and economic drug treatment.
3.Monitoring every stage of medication therapy to improve all aspects of delivery and reporting patient side effects.
4.Providing information to individual wards on budgets and expenditure on drugs.
5.Setting up clinical trials, evaluating new medications against claims made by pharmaceutical companies and recommending new medicines that are the safest and most effective for individual patient needs.
6.Writing guidelines for drugs used within the hospital, preparing bulletins and implementing hospital regulations.
7.Ensuring medication reaches the patient in the correct form and dose, this may include tablets, capsules, ointments, injections, inhalers and creams.

To become a hospital pharmacist one need to have a pharmacy degree (Pharma.D) which is a four year course and undertake a year of practical training to gain registration with the relevant Pharmacy Board that has been approved by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. The university course usually comprises four major areas of study:

1.Medicinal chemistry (chemistry of drugs)
2.Pharmacology (modes of actions of drugs)
3.Pharmaceutics (formulation of drug dose forms)
4.Pharmacy practice (application of all of these to the professional practice of pharmacy).
Pharmacists should have scientific aptitude, good interpersonal skills, and a desire to help others. They must pay close attention to detail, because the decisions they make affect human lives. Every hospital contains a pharmacist, therefore experienced pharmacists are easily provided the job in hospitals and a good salary is given to them, such as a three years experienced pharmacist can earn a salary between Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 20,000 and it increases with the experience.



Oncology Pharmacist Jobs
Oncology Pharmacist is the branch of medicine that deals with tumors, including study of their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. It plays a significant role in a cancer patients treatment by dispensing not just the prescription, but valuable information for the patient throughout the therapy, including side-effect counseling and management and proper handling techniques. Pharmacists are making significant contributions to the profession through specialized pharmaceutical care. The oncology pharmacist keeps the knowledge of appropriate doses, Pharmacokinetics, incompatibilities, special administration procedure, acute and cumulative toxic manifestation, unique databases and counseling.

Chemotherapy admixture:
Oncology pharmacists jobs mainly deals with cancer patients. Approximately 60 per cent of cancer patients will be referred to a medical oncologist or hematologist, and two-thirds of these patients (about 40 per cent) will receive chemotherapy. The oncology pharmacist with the help of physicians can prepare a treatment protocol including approximate treatment cost for chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, adjuvant therapy, etc. Pharmacists can help in monitoring IV admixture administration and preventing medication errors by reviewing the prescription and educating nursing professionals on safe handling and administration of cytotoxic drugs. Chemo drugs must be handled and kept safely to prevent losses, accidental over dosage and wrong medication. These drugs are very expensive and once the wrong selection of solvent or improper shaking or maintaining inappropriate temperature during admixture and storage, all this conditions may lead to crystal or precipitation or foam formation and ultimately this preparation reduces its potency, stability and quality. Exposure to cytotoxic drugs can be harmful. Direct exposure to cytotoxic agents can occur during admixture, administration or handling and involves inhalation, ingestion or absorption. Pharmacists a professionally trained in drug admixture helps in making such preparation appropriate.

The Clinical Oncology Pharmacist will be responsible for developing policies & procedures regarding the safe preparation of oncological products. In collaboration with the Oncology Physicians on staff, the Clinical Pharmacist is directly involved in prescribing, dispensing, administering and monitoring chemotherapeutic agents in the oncology infusion site as well as the cancer care program.

To become an oncologist, complete the first four year of medical school, graduating with an M.D degree. Complete an internal residency programme of two to four years and enter into an company for training. Sinclair pharmaceuticals, National Institute of Health, Intas BioPharmaceuticas and Ferndale Laboratories are some of the companies hiring oncology pharmacists. Doctor of Pharmacy from an accredited School of Pharmacy. Current licensure (or eligibility) as a Pharmacist. One year post-graduate residency (or 3 years experience).



Online Pharmacist Jobs
Online pharmacies are pharmacies that operate over the Internet. Many such pharmacies are similar to community pharmacies, the primary difference is the method by which the medications are requested and received. Some customers consider this to be more convenient than traveling to a community drugstore. Online pharmacy gives an opportunity to buy drugs from foreign countries and it can also be a great advantage. It is a usual practice when world known manufactures of medications sell their production through online pharmacy. If you buy drugs in online pharmacy your money savings can be great and you can save much time using online pharmacy and receiving your online pharmacy order just by mail.

Many internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs only with a prescription, some do not require a pre-written prescription. In some countries, this is because prescriptions are not legally required. Some customers order drugs from such pharmacies to avoid the inconvenience of visiting a doctor or to obtain medications their doctors were unwilling to prescribe. Some people just dont have a necessary insurance to visit a doctor and to take a prescription and online pharmacy gives an opportunity to buy drugs without insurance. Besides using any online pharmacy people dont have to pay for visiting a doctor and for his prescription. For many people it is a crucial reason for using online pharmacy. But selling drugs without a prescription and without consulting a doctor can be dangerous, thats why some specialists criticize such practice. Online pharmacists and technician are the main professions in online pharmacy industry. Their work and the work of online drugstores are regulated by state and international laws. Online pharmacist should have a good professional education and necessary qualification. Online pharmacist must know everything about biological, chemical, physical and other characteristics of drugs. He should be able to warn the client about the possible reactions and influence that each medicine can cause. They also should be aware of different side effects and the way any medicine interacts with other drugs. People often ask online pharmacists questions not only about drugs but also about nutrition, diets, health equipment, etc. and a professional online pharmacist should be able to answer these questions. Online pharmacists will be even in greater demand in the several years. The population of the world is getting older. The amount of diseases is growing as well as the amount of medications, and that is even more important, people use Internet in their everyday life more actively. So, online pharmacy, including cheap online pharmacy and discount online pharmacy will develop along with the profession of online pharmacist.
Online pharmacies offer a legitimate platform to buy prescription and non prescription drugs without even visiting the doctor. A licensed doctor reviews your medication request and the questionnaire to determine if you qualify for the medication. These online pharmacies also have 24 hours customer care service who can be contacted any time for any health related queries. It will help in minimizing the risk factor. In India the online pharmacy service is at its infancy but its a business with a huge market and so is the need for online pharmacist jobs seekers.



Pharmacist Assistant Jobs

A Pharmacist Assistant answers phones, handles money, inputs data into the computer system and stocks shelves. As a pharmacist assistant, responsibilities include inventory management for a large store of drugs and narcotics. Many pharmacist assistants order supplies for the pharmacy and complete accounting records. The pharmacy team usually consists of one pharmacist, and two assistants. A pharmacist assistant works in a drug dispensing role within a pharmacy. Under the supervision of the pharmacist, they are responsible for reviewing prescriptions, completing the order and maintaining detailed records.

In order to become a pharmacist assistant, you must complete a training program. These programs are available through a wide range of community and career colleges. The is a two years program and focuses on chemistry, pharmacy and drug interactions. Admission requirements to this program include high school courses in English, chemistry, math and business. A criminal record check is a standard requirement for anyone who wants to become a pharmacist assistant. The role involves unrestricted access to prescription medication. It is very important to ensure that all candidates have no history of selling or purchasing drugs. The local police station performs this check annually. The specific types of offenses included in a police report vary by state, so it is important to check this information in advance.

Pharmacist assistants can find employment in pharmacies, hospitals, seniors’ homes, correctional facilities or the military. In all these roles, it is important to display integrity, and professionalism. The incorrect medication can be deadly, so precision and attention to detail are critical. In some companies, pharmacist assistants are required to submit to random drug testing. The degree and frequency of testing varies widely. It can be part of a more widespread company policy. It is best to avoid any unauthorized drug use, as the risks are quite high. Upon graduation, many pharmacist assistants take additional certification in specific industries, such as senior or pediatrics care. They can work closely with the pharmacist to discuss drug interactions, test new medications and different delivery systems options. Pharmacist assistants do not need any specific education or certification for working in a pharmacy store, so it is possible to directly apply for the job, where you can receive most of the necessary training on the job. He works with the public, so good customer service is a must. Because a Pharmacist Assistant deals with the public constantly, appearance is very important.

Persons who work as pharmacist assistants jobs are responsible for dispensing and distributing medication to patients under the supervision of a pharmacist. To provide the correct prescription to patients, assistants will count tablets, pour, weigh and measure medicine to determine how much is issued inside each medicine bottle. Pharmacist assistants will organize prescription labels and locate the best container to fill the medication before giving to a pharmacist to inspect before distributing to the patient. Before dispensing medication, pharmacist assistants must verify patients information to make sure the prescription is correct. This procedure is done by checking the patients identity, whether a patient has allergies, as well as the weight of the medicine for each prescription issued.



Pharmacist Career
Pharmacist jobs requires pharmacists to dispense prescription drugs to patients. They provide information about those drugs and help patients understand the instructions their doctors or other health practitioners provided. They monitor their patients health and progress to make sure their medications are working effectively and safely.

Pharmacists are responsible for the preparation, dispensing and appropriate use of medication and which provides services to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes. A Pharmacists job is to prepare, mix, compound or dispense drugs and medicines, ointments, powder, pills, tablets and injections on the prescription of a medical practitioner. Those in research, concern themselves with synthesis of new drugs, clinical testing of the effects of such drugs on animals and humans, and obtaining the required license from the drug control authorities. Pharmacists also work outside of pharmacies. They are working alongside insurance companies to create benefit packages for prescriptions. Some are conducting research and teaching in universities. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are hiring pharmacists to help with drug development and clinical research. Companies are also using pharmacists to market drugs because of their extensive knowledge of drugs and their proper uses.

The job avenues for a pharmacist are open in public and private sector. They are mostly hired by government hospitals and health care departments. Besides they are also offered jobs in private hospitals, clinics and nursing homes. They can also work in pharmaceutical industries. Various government departments like Railways and Defense also recruit pharmacists in their departmental hospitals. Appointments are also available in sale promotion work as medical representatives. M.pharm or Ph.D holders are normally needed in research work, to develop new useful drugs, in laboratories and in production work in pharmaceutical industry and analyzing them for purity and strength. Pharmacist may also take up teaching as a profession as lectures in pharmacy colleges and universities. Pharmacists working in managed-care facilities are being used to analyze the cost for the benefits of certain drugs and to study various patient populations and their medication use. Biotechnological advancement will create research and sales opportunities for pharmacists working for pharmaceutical companies.

Pharmacy courses are offered by many pharmacy colleges and universities. Some of them are:
1.Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi.
2.Indian Institute of Pharmacy, Jamshedpur.
3.New Delhi Collage of Pharmacy, New Delhi.
4.Hamdard University, New Delhi.
5.Collage of Pharmaceutical Science, Manipal.
6.Trivendrum College of Pharmaceutical Science, Trivendrum.
7.Collage of Pharmacy, Indore.
8.Bombay College of Pharmacy, Mumbai.
9.Sri Jayadev College of Pharmaceutical Science, Puri.
10.Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani.
11.Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu.
12.Madras Medical College, Chennai.
13.Baneras Hindu University, Varanasi.
14.Jadavpur University, Calcatta.

Pharmacists get reasonable salary in government and private hospitals, clinics and diagnostic laboratories, etc. The average starting salary of a pharmacists ranges between Rs.6,000 to Rs.10,000 per month in hospitals and in clinics. Those working in private hospitals and clinics have more income than those of government employees. Those who are doing private practice are earning a good salary depending upon their skill and popularity. Those working in private sector pharmaceutical companies have a pay of Rs. 12,000 to Rs. 20,000 depending upon qualification and experiences. Medical Representatives are earning on an average Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 15,000 per month.

Many companies offer jobs for a pharmacist, just as they complete their studies. Pharmacist career can even move to abroad after a few years of experience. Some of the companies that offers jobs for them are Abbott Laborateries, Genzyme Corporation, Incyte Pharmaceuticals, Onyx Pharmaceutical and Neurogen Corporation. The hiring and training of pharmacy aides and technicians, in addition to automation, is allowing pharmacies to provide services to larger numbers of people. Because the cost of medication is often lower, insurance companies are beginning to cover more prescription expenses. As more prescriptions are being filled, more career opportunities for pharmacists will arise.

Pharmacist Jobs
Pharmacists are health professionals who practice the science of pharmacy. They deals with the health and chemical science and ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. They provide information about those drugs and helps patients understand the instructions which their doctors and other health practitioners had given them.

A pharmacist must have a doctor of pharmacy degree known as Pharma D or a degree of Bachelor known as Pharma B. It is a four years course after completing 10+2 with chemistry and biology and must be certified by the Council Of Pharmacy Education. It also includes Pharma M (Master in pharmacy) which is a more higher course in pharmacy. One can even do PhD or MBA in pharmacy and can even join the clinical research field so as to discover new medicines. Doctor of pharmacy includes coursework in pharmaceutical drugs, pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy administration. Pharmacists must have scientific amplitude, good communication skill and must be detail oriented. Pharmacists may join a company or may run his own pharmacy. Jobs are also provided by the hospitals. A pharmacist can earn a good salary through this professional job. Many companies provide jobs all over India. They can also move to abroad as it a ruin all over the world. International companies like… also hire experienced pharmacists who can work as a clinical researcher and helps in dealing with the deadly diseases like AIDS, Cancer, etc and to produce more durable medicines.

Pharmacists have a very great demand in and outside India. Choosing pharmacy as a career has a very bright future and will have the lifetime opportunity to deal with the physicians, doctors and health practitioners.

Types Of Courses In Pharmacy
1.Bachelor in pharmacy (B Pharma): Duration:4 years
2.Degree in pharmacy (D Pharma): Duration:2 years
3.Master in pharmacy (M Pharma): Duration:4 Semesters
4.MBA in pharmacy: Duration:2 years
5.PhD in pharmacy
6.Clinical research
Average Salary Of A Pharmacist in Abroad
1.Pharma D – $110,000 to $89,000
2.Chains – $ 89,500 to $68,000
3.Independent – $84,000 to $57,000
4.Supermarkets – $85,000 to $64,000
5.Merchandiser – $88,000 to $68,000
6.HMO’s – $83,000 to $66,000
7.Hospitals – $79,800 to $61,500

There is a boon for pharmacists all over the world and a large number of companies offers pharmacist jobs to them. The companies like Medco Health Solutions, Laboratory corporation of America, U.S Oncology Holdings, Quest Diagnostics, Bayer pharmaceuticals, Aanjaneya Biotech in Mumbai, Bharat Serums and Vaccines in Mumbai, Century pharmaceuticals in Gujrat, etc which has a great demand for pharmacists.


Pharmacist Salary
The average starting salary for a person who does pharmacist jobs is around Rs 4,000. Research Scientists earns Rs.10,000 to 40,000 per month, Medical Representative Rs. 5,000 to 10,000 per month + incentives, Manufacturing Pharmacists Rs. 5,000 upwards, Hospital Pharmacists Rs.3,000 to 5,000 per month, Government Jobs Rs. 1,500 to 2,500 per month (basic) along with Contributory Provident Fund, D.A., Insurance, Medical reimbursement, and other allowances and benefits as per government rules.

Every hospital contains a pharmacist, therefore experienced pharmacists are easily provided the job in hospitals and a good salary is given to them, such as a three years experienced pharmacist can earn a salary between Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 20,000 and it increases with the experience.
Average Salary Of A Pharmacist in Abroad
1.Pharma D – $110,000 to $89,000
2.Chains – $89,500 to $68,000
3.Independent – $84,000 to $57,000
4.Supermarkets – $85,000 to $64,000
5.Merchandiser – $88,000 to $68,000
6.HMOs – $83,000 to $66,000
7.Hospitals – $79,800 to $61,500


There is a great demand for clinical pharmacists all over the globe and are also paid a high salary like one can earn $89,000 in The Dentroit Medical Center Harper University Hospital, $79,000 in the St. Francis Healthcare System of Hawaii and $77,000 in the Detroit Medical Center. New-graduate salaries starts with $85,000 to $95,000. Paid relocation costs and signing bonuses of $5,000 to $10,000 are common.

Pharmacist: Work and Employment

Work of a pharmacist:
Pharmacists are health practitioners who specialize in dispensing drugs prescribed by physicians and providing information to patients about their side effects and use. Pharmacists must understand the composition of medicines, as well as the laws that regulate their manufacture and sale. They order and store medicines, keeping them safe, pure, and effective. A pharmacist is an important medical worker who aids physicians, dentists and veterinarians by giving appropriate medications to patients. Some pharmacists may also specialize in pharmaceutical research, or in marketing and sales of particular medications for a company. Many in this field work in drug, department or retail store settings, and many more work in hospital settings. They are specialists in their knowledge of medications, and must always be furthering their education in this area since new medications are developed all the time. They are required by law to maintain records of the drugs they handle.

Most pharmacists work in community pharmacies. Some of these retail stores, which are owned either by the pharmacists themselves or by drugstore chains, sell only medical and sickroom supplies. Others carry a wide range of items, from health supplies to laundry detergent and stationery. Some pharmacists concentrate on the dispensing of drugs, while others manage entire stores, creating combined pharmacy and business careers. Some pharmacists work in hospital or nursing home pharmacies. They buy, inspect, store, and distribute drugs. They often keep drug information libraries and advise the medical and nursing staffs about new drugs. Other pharmacists work in the pharmaceutical industry, which includes companies that research, manufacture, or sell medicines. Pharmacists are also employed by government agencies and as teachers in colleges and universities. A small number work in specialized areas, such as writing or editing books, articles, or advertisements about drugs. Most pharmacists keep confidential computerized records of patients drug therapies to prevent harmful drug interactions. Pharmacists are responsible for the accuracy of every prescription that is filled, but they often rely upon pharmacy technicians to assist them in the dispensing medications.

Pharmacists are usually on their feet for long hours. They should be in good health and be able to communicate with other professionals as well as with the public. They must be responsible people who can do careful, detailed, and confidential work. Management skills are also needed. Pharmacists work in clean, pleasant surroundings. Most salaried employees work about forty hours per week, while self-employed pharmacists work about fifty hours per week. They often work evening and weekend hours. Some pharmacists work part time.


Employment:
The employment of pharmacist jobs is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations. The demand for pharmacists, because of general employment growth or because of retirements, should exceed to a large extent. The employment opportunities for pharmacists are immense. Its commonly believed that Pharmacists are health practitioners whose main job includes specializing in administering drugs prescribed by doctors to their patients. But before being an pharmacist one needs to well understand the composition of varied medicines.

The increasing numbers of middle-aged and elderly people, who use more prescription drugs than younger people will continue to spur demand for pharmacists throughout the projection period. In addition, as scientific advances lead to new drug products, and as an increasing number of people obtain prescription drug coverage, the need for these workers will continue to expand. Pharmacists also are becoming more involved in patient care. As prescription drugs become more complex, and as the number of people taking multiple medications increases, the potential for dangerous drug interactions will grow. Pharmacists will be needed to counsel patients on the proper use of medication, assist in drug selection and dosage, and monitor complex drug regimens. This need will lead to rapid growth for pharmacists in medical care establishments, such as doctors offices, outpatient care centers, and nursing care facilities. Demand for pharmacists will also increase in mail-order pharmacies, which often are more efficient than pharmacies in other practice settings. Pharmacist employment also will continue to grow in hospitals, drugstores, grocery stores, and mass retailers, because pharmacies in these settings will continue to process the majority of all prescriptions and increasingly will offer patient care services, such as the administration of vaccines.


Pharmacists Intervention
In recent years, the usage of activated vitamin D (α-calcidol and calcitriol) in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) has escalated and this has put unnecessary burden on the hospitals limited health care budget. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a clinical pharmacists intervention in reducing the inappropriate use of activated vitamin D. Data were collected retrospectively. Pre-intervention data were obtained from records of the previous years use of activated vitamin D. An intervention screening form was developed based on a new guideline which was produced by the UMMC Osteoporosis Committee. Use of activated vitamin D was reviewed by a clinical pharmacist using the screening form. Pharmacist intervention on the use of activated vitamin D was effective and resulted in a cost saving of up to. Prescribers in the UMMC are now aware of the guidelines and justifications for the use of activated vitamin D. Therefore, the implementation of the guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of medications is a effort between pharmacists and prescribers. Intervention made by pharmacists to prescriptions for both inpatients and outpatients when they perceived inadequacies of drug prescription or administration, including characterization of the problem, coding of outcome, recording of time taken to initiate and resolve intervention, and grade of prescribing doctor.

A group of pharmacists was encouraged to discuss essential elements of asthma care with the general practitioners they normally worked with. In this study they found a statistically significant and clinically relevant effect of the intervention on the availability of a short-acting betamimetic and the use of inhaled corticosteroid while on long-acting betamimetics. The use of only one type of inhaler improved in the intervention and reference groups. Most reactive pharmacy interventions concerned prescribing errors with a limited potential for medical harm, but a small number of detected errors with a major potential for medical harm; cost savings were not appreciable.



Pharmacy Education

A pharmacist is a medical professional who dispenses drugs to patients according to a prescription ordered by a physician or other clinician. Pharmacist jobs professional have a knowledge of the chemistry of various drugs and how they react in humans, and also how drugs interact with each other. Pharmacists must accurately measure and package medicine, ensuring its dosage and safety to be administered properly to a patient. While the pharmacist does not typically select or prescribe the medication, the pharmacist educates the patient on how to take the medication and what reactions or problems to be avoided.

It can be said that the pharmacy education in India is the result of efforts of Prof. M L Schroff. He was instrumental in starting a regular B.Pharm course of three years in 1937. Today, pharmacy education has experienced a phenomenal growth with 450 degree colleges training more than 25,000 students at B.Pharm level.

There is a severe shortage of qualified and competent faculty in the pharmacy colleges in the country. Also, there is a mismatch between knowledge and skills received by pharmacy graduates and the job requirements. In the distribution of pharmacy colleges in the country is causing regional imbalances and inter-state migration of students. To add to the trouble, the pharmacy colleges in the rural and remote areas are not so popular. Apart, students graduated from several pharmacy colleges in the country are unable to work in a team and lacks inter disciplinary knowledge, enough practical orientation and oral and written skills. There is a dual control of Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) to lead the pharmacy education in the country.

Pharmacists graduating from college today are required to have a PharmD, or doctorate of Pharmacy degree. College students can start a four year pharmacy program after successfully completing two years of undergraduate coursework and earning a passing score on the PCAT (Pharmacy college admission test). Coursework in pharmacy and pre-pharmacy includes chemistry, physics, biology, anatomy, and physiology.

Additionally, PharmD students must complete a series of rotations in a variety of clinical and pharmaceutical settings. The length and quantity of rotations varies, but the average PharmD program requires 7-10 rotaions, each of which is 4 to 6 weeks in length.
The main courses in Pharmacy are the 2 years Diploma in Pharmacy (D.Pharm).

Types Of Courses In Pharmacy
1.Bachelor in pharmacy (B Pharma)
Duration:4 years
2.Degree in pharmacy (D Pharma)
Duration:2 years
3.Master in pharmacy (M Pharma)
Duration:2 years
4.MBA in pharmacy
Duration:2 years
5.PhD in pharmac
6.Clinical research

A pharmacist should be exposed to such aspects in the academics that he can be in any one of the following professional categories of jobs:

1.Chemist and druggist engaged in selling of medicines.
2.Manager and administrator of pharmaceuticals services working for various regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical systems.
3.Academicians (teachers of pharmacy).
4.Specialist in research and development (research of new drug molecules, biotechnological investigations etc).
5.Community and hospital pharmacists with specialized knowledge in drug usage, side effects, contra indications, incompatibilities, storage conditions of drugs, dosage regimen etc.
6.Occupational specialist (industrial pharmacist engaged in pharmaceutical technology) which performs manufacture of various dosage forms, analysis and quality control, clinical trials, post marketing surveillance, patent applications, drug registrations.


Pharmacy Technicians

Pharmacy technicians work closely with pharmacists to deliver accurately identified and properly dosed medications to patients. Pharmacy technician is a job title for a pharmacy staff member who works under the direct supervision of a licensed pharmacist and performs many pharmacy related functions. In most cases, job duties include providing medication and other health care products to patients, as well as working with third party and clinics in resolving adjudication of patients insurance or state program. Pharmacy technicians often do the routine tasks associated with preparing prescribed medication and providing drugs to patients, but may also do compounding of medications, verbal prescriptions and doctor calls, expense and medication orders, returns and expired credits, and non-licensed pharmacy management. Licensed pharmacists check all medications before they go to the patient, and only pharmacists may counsel patients on the proper use of medications. In the United Kingdom (UK) however, training and continuing professional development is such that pharmacy technicians are qualified to counsel patients on their medication and indeed specialist technicians participate in the running of anticoagulant clinics, dosing patients under dose banding guidance. In hospital pharmacy especially, pharmacy technicians generally oversee the operational management of the dispensary and manufacturing units, freeing the pharmacists to participate and develop extended clinical pharmacy roles, such as independent prescribing, etc. Pharmacy technicians who work in patient care facilities are responsible reading patient charts, then preparing the medication, verifying the prescription and delivering it to the patient.

Pharmacy technicians who work in retail or mail-order pharmacies have various responsibilities. Technicians receive written prescription requests from patients. They also may receive prescriptions sent electronically from doctors offices, and in some States they are permitted to process requests by phone. They must verify that the information on the prescription is complete and accurate. To prepare the prescription, technicians retrieve, count, pour, weigh, measure, and sometimes mix the medication. Then they prepare the prescription labels, select the type of container, and affix the prescription and auxiliary labels to the container. Once the prescription is filled, technicians price and file the prescription, which must be checked by a pharmacist before it is given to the patient. Technicians may establish and maintain patient profiles, as well as prepare insurance claim forms. Technicians always refer any questions regarding prescriptions, drug information, or health matters to a pharmacist.

Pharmacy technicians work in a clean and organized environments such as hospitals, and retail pharmacies where they will be spending most of their working hours standing on their feet. Hence they should be physically fit and should be healthy and disease free. Pharmacy job technicians can be employed either part-time or full-time and they many be required to work evenings, weekends, and some holidays. A pharmacy technicians job may vary slightly depending on the type of facility they work in. Pharmacy technicians who work in hospital or drug store pharmacies perform different tasks than those who work in mail-order fulfillment. And technicians who work in nursing homes, hospitals or care facilities have additional duties than those who work in other field. Pharmacy technician training programs are offered by the military, some hospitals, proprietary schools, vocational or technical colleges, and community colleges. Training is also often offered as part of employment with many pharmacies. These prepare the student for a pharmacy technician exam and often include labs.

Certification from an approved Pharmacy Technician Program or two years pharmacy technology experience or any equivalent combination of experience is needed for a pharmacy technician.



Pharmacy Training
Pharmacists are responsible for distributing prescription drugs to patients and teaching them how to properly use their medications. They keep a careful watch on patients to make sure they are using their prescriptions properly. A pharmacist must be well trained to do these tasks in a correct manner.

Pharmacists who are trained in the United States must earn a Pharm.D. degree from an accredited college or school of pharmacy. The Pharm.D. degree has replaced the Bachelor of Pharmacy degree, which is no longer being awarded. To be admitted to a Pharm.D. program, an applicant must have completed at least 2 years of specific professional study. This requirement generally includes courses in mathematics and natural sciences, such as chemistry, biology, and physics, as well as courses in the humanities and social sciences. In addition, most applicants have completed 3 or more years at a college or university before moving on to a Pharm.D. program, although this is not specifically required.

Pharm.D. programs generally take 4 years to complete. The courses offered are designed to teach students about all aspects of drug therapy. In addition, students learn how to communicate with patients and other healthcare providers about drug information and patient care. Students also learn professional ethics, concepts of public health, and business management. In addition to receiving classroom instruction, students in Pharm.D. programs spend time working with licensed pharmacists in a variety of practice settings. Some Pharm.D. graduates obtain further training through 1-year or 2-year residency programs or fellowships. Pharmacy residencies are postgraduate training programs in pharmacy practice and usually require the completion of a research project. The programs are often mandatory for pharmacists who wish to work in a clinical setting. Pharmacy training fellowships are highly individualized programs that are designed to prepare participants to work in a specialized area of pharmacy, such clinical practice or research laboratories.

Some pharmacists who own their own pharmacy obtain a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Others may obtain a degree in public administration or public health. Pharmacy students also have the option of completing an additional Ph.D or master of science degree after earning the Pharm.D. degree. These supplementary degrees give further experience in research or laboratory training. After earning these degrees, graduates have the options of teaching at the university level or conducting research for a pharmaceutical company. One or two year fellowships and residencies are also available as further training for someone who wants to conduct laboratory research. A masters degree in business, or MBA, is sometimes obtained by pharmacists planning to own a pharmacy. Pharmacology, pharmacy administration, and pharmaceutics are offered as graduate study.



Retail Pharmacist

Retail pharmacists dispense medications at drug stores or grocery stores. In retail settings, the pharmacist compounds drugs, orders supplies when necessary, may advise physicians on drug interactions, and dispenses medications to people with prescriptions. Retail Pharmacists are also commonly know as Community Pharmacists and have a wide range of responsibilities. These include processing prescriptions, maintenance of patient medication records, health promotion, patient medication, counseling, primary health care, specialized patient medication administration systems services to patients with particular needs, domiciliary care, nursing home and private hospital services, therapeutic device supply and fitting, methadone maintenance programs, public health screening programs and providing expert advice to medical practitioners and other health professionals.

A pharmacist cannot give medications to those without prescriptions unless the medications are legally sold over the counter. They are further responsible for making patients understand how to properly use prescription drugs. Many pharmacists maintain records on patients, when patients use the same pharmacy for all their prescriptions, to be certain that no medications the patient currently takes conflicts with newly prescribed drugs.

Duties of a Retail Pharmacist:
1.Prepares or supervises the preparation of liquid medicines, ointments, powders, tablets and other medications.
2.Checks prescriptions for correct dosage and for drug interactions and incompatibilities.
3.Compounds prescribed medicines, and packages and labels them.
4.Stores and preserves vaccines, serums and other drugs subject to deterioration.
5.Contact physicians and benefit providers as necessary to process a prescription.
6.Verify all patient information before filling a prescription.
7.Sells non-prescription drugs, sick-room supplies, toiletries, cosmetics and related commercial products.
8.Provides advice and information on the use and effects of medications.
9.Records prescriptions dispensed, and the issue of poisons, narcotics and other restricted drugs.
Its commonly seen that retail pharmacy is a flourishing career for many for those who have completed their B. Pharma degree and has proper license requirements. Retail pharmacists administer medications at drug stores or grocery stores and their pay package and benefits are quite good as per with other professionals, but the working hours can be unfixed as sometimes one needs to attend to medical emergency.
The pay and benefits of a retail pharmacist jobs professional are excellent, the hours can be tough in retail jobs, due to the fact that most stores are now open 24 hours, seven days a week. Most retail stores employ 2 full-time pharmacists who work a shift based schedule of 12-hour shifts alternating two days on and two days off.
Beginning a career as a retail pharmacist requires a Pharm. D. (Doctor of Pharmacy) degree. Additionally, graduates must pass a pharmacy law test, either Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam (MPJE), or a similar state exam. Some retail pharmaceutical companies will help an employee with certification. After the several years of education, formal training and state certification, a retail pharmacist can join a -pharmacy store or may get self-employed in a pharmacy store. Clear and effective communication with the patient and the physician is essential.


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