The measurement of chemical composition is necessary throughout commerce, regulatory government, and many fields of science. Chemical analysis thus takes on many specialized forms.
To measure the chemical composition, body of procedures and techniques required to identifying and quantifying the chemical composition of a sample of a substance. A chemist executing a qualitative analysis seeks to identify the substances in the sample. A quantitative analysis is an attempt to determine the quantity or concentration of a specific substance in the sample. For example, determining whether a sample of salt contains the element iodine is a qualitative analysis; measuring the percentage by weight of any iodine in the sample is a quantitative analysis.
To separate undesired materials from the desired constituents requires certain separation methods or techniques. The appropriate separation method depends on the nature of the constituent sought and of the overall sample. Chromatography is the most generally applicable of the separation methods and has many variants according to the nature of the column packing and the sample-constituent interaction.
What is Chromatography?
Chromatography is a non-destructive process for resolving a multi-component mixture of traces, minor or major constituents into its individual fractions. Chromatography may be applied to both quantitative and qualitatively. It is primarily a separation tool.
Principle Underlying Chromatography
It is based on Partition Coefficient in which a compound describes the way in which it is distributed itself between two immiscible phases.
Concentration in Solvent A / Concentration in Solvent B = Kd
Kd — Partition Coefficient (or) Distribution Coefficient
Different types of chromatographic techniques are available to analyze the samples, but few of the techniques are familiar, those are High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography (GC). All the chromatographic techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. Gel permeation chromatography, in which large molecules separate according to their size; and ion exchange chromatography, in which charged, or ionic, constituents are separated. Gas chromatography separates the volatile constituents of a sample, and liquid/liquid chromatography separates small, neutral molecules in solution.
Why HPLC and GC having high importance compared with other techniques?
HPLC and GC techniques are not only useful for separation, but also useful for qualifying (identifying) and quantifying the small and neutral molecules also. A few microgram of sample (at the extreme, even less than a nanogram) is enough to ensure the required accuracy. Secondly, chromatographic separations are usually relatively fast, Precise, Accurate and an analysis can be completed in Short Span possibly in a few seconds. Another advantage of these techniques is relative simplicity and ease of operation compared with other instrumental techniques. If the established procedure is well controlled and the apparatus is maintained under calibrated condition, good accuracy and precision can be achieved.
Industries Employing Trained People in HPLC &GC
1) Pharma (Bulk, Formulations)
2) Biotechnology / Biological
3) Phyto Chemical/ Herbal
4) Food / Beverages/Breweries
5) Oil and Gas
6) Chemical/ Petro Chemical
8) Cosmetics /Perfumes
|Chemist||B.Sc/M.Sc/B.Pharm||6 Months -2 Yrs||5000-8000|
Salary variation is based on Company Profile (Small, Medium and Large) and on Turn over. All the above figures are in Rupees.