A large evergreen tree which grows to a height of 10-45 m, dome shaped with dense foliage. The leaves are linear-oblong and release an aromatic odour when crushed. The bark is thick, grey to brown in colour and with age exfoliates in the form of flakes. The inflorescence occurs in panicles consisting of about 3000 tiny whitish-red or yellowish-green flowers. The fruit is a well-known large drupe, but shows a great variation in shape and size. It contains a thick yellow pulp, single seed and thick yellowish-
Mango - Pharmacognosy & Health Benefits
Pharmacognosy of Mangifera indica
Botanical name : Mangifera indica Linn.
Family : Anacardiaceae
SANSKRIT SYNONYMS :
Amra, Choota, Rasala, Pikavallabha, Makanda
AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES :
Rasa : Amla, Kashaya Guna : Guru, Snigdha Virya : Seeta Vipaka : Madhura
PLANT NAME IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGESE
nglish : Mango tree Hindi : Aam Malayalam : Mavu, Manga
Distribution – Throughout India cultivated as well as growing wild.
PLANT DESCRIPTION : A large evergreen tree which grows to a height of 10-45 m, dome shaped with dense foliage. The leaves are linear-oblong and release an aromatic odour when crushed. The bark is thick, grey to brown in colour and with age exfoliates in the form of flakes. The inflorescence occurs in panicles consisting of about 3000 tiny whitish-red or yellowish-green flowers. The fruit is a well-known large drupe, but shows a great variation in shape and size. It contains a thick yellow pulp, single seed and thick yellowish-red skin when ripe. The seed is solitary, ovoid or oblong, encased in a hard, compressed fibrous endocarp.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :
Saponins, hydrocarbons and triterpenes
Indicoside A and B, manghopanal, mangoleanone, taraxerol, friedelin, cycloartan-3β-30-diol and derivatives, mangsterol, manglupenone, mangcoumarin, n-tetacosane, n-heneicosane, n-triacontane and mangiferolic acid methyl ester and others have been isolated from the stem bark of Mangifera indica.
Xanthones and phenolics
Mangostin, 29-hydroxymangiferonic acid and mangiferin have been isolated from the stem bark, together with common flavonoids. The flowers yielded alkyl gallates such as gallic acid, ethyl gallate, methyl gallate, n-propyl gallate, n-pentyl gallate, n-octyl gallate, 4-phenyl-n-butyl gallate, 6-phenyl-n-hexyl gallate and dihydrogallic acid.
The root contains the chromones, 3- hydroxy- 2-( 4' -methylbenzoyl)-chromone and 3-methoxy-2-(4' -methylbenzoyl)-chromone
An unusual fatty acid, cis-9, cis-15-octadecadienoic acid was isolated from the pulp lipids ofmango.
The leaf and flower yield an essential oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool, nerol and many others.
Vitamins and carotenoids
The fruit pulp contains vitamins A and C, β-carotene and xanthophylls:
MEDICINAL PROPERTIES : Plant pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, wounds, ulcer, vomiting, menorrhagia, and leucorrhoea. Seed especially cures menorrhagia and dysentery. Unripe fruit cause vitiation of pitta and vata, and ripe fruit is tonic. Ripe mango fruit is considered to be invigorating and freshening. The juice isa restorative tonic and used in heat stroke. Various parts of the plant are used as a dentifrice, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretiβ stomachic, vermifuge, tonic, laxative and diuretic and to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, anaemia, asthma, bronchitis, cough, hypertension, insomnia, rheumatism, toothache, leucorrhoea, haemorrhage and piles. The seeds are used in asthma and as an astringent.The bark is used in haemorrhage and the seed kernel, leaf, fruit and pulp are used as feed in ruminants. All parts are used totreal abscesses, broken horn, rabid dog or jackal bite, tumour, snakebite, stings, datura poisoning, heat stroke, miscarriage, anthrax, blisters and wounds in the mouth, tympanitis, colic, diarrhoea, glossitis, indigestion, bacillosis, bloody dysentery, liver disorders, excessive urination, tetanus and asthma
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY :
Antiinflammatory activity: An alcoholic extract of the seed kernel of Mangifera indica exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity in acute, subacute and chronic cases of inflammation.
Antimicrobial activity: Moderate antibacterial activity has been observed in the seed kernel extracts. The leaf extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus and Vibrio cholerae.
Antioxidant activity: The extract showed a powerful scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and acted as a chelator of iron. It also showed a significant inhibitory effect on the peroxidation of rat brain phospholipid and prevented DNA damage caused by bleomycin or copper-phenanthroline systems.
Antiviral activity: Mangiferin was effective in controlling herpes simplex virus type 2, in vitro. Virus replication was significantly reduced and the study indicated that mangiferin did not act directly on the virus but inhibited the late events in HSV- 2 replication.Effect on a-amylase: Ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica were tested on a-amylase activity in vitro and showed an effect.
Hepatoprotective activity: Mangiferin exhibited protection of liver against CCl.-induced liver damage.Immunomodulatory action: Mangiferin induced both in vivo and in vitro activation of peritoneal macrophages by a mechanism not yet clear. The induction of interferon release from the macrophages by mangiferin, its potent metal-chelating activity, inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and lymphoproliferative effect on macrophage activation established the therapeutic potential of mangiferin as an immunomodulator and possible anticancer agent.
Hypoglycaemic activity: A 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves produced a significant hypoglycaemic effect at a dose of 250 mg/kg, both in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals. The stimulation of β-cells to release insulin was thought to be part of the mechanism of action.
Anticancer activity: Significant cytolytic activities were demonstrated by the stem bark extract against the breast cancer cell lines MCF 7, MDA-MB-435 and MDA-N, as well as against a colon cancer cell line (SW-620) and a renal cancer cell line (786-0).
Antiinflammatory activity: The aqueous extract of stem bark (50-1000 mg/kg PO) exhibited a potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect using the acetic acid test in mice. The extract (20-1000 mg/kg POI also dose dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced pain, although not the first phase, being more potent than indomethacin at doses of 20 mg/kg.lt inhibited oedema formation of both carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema in rats, guinea pigs and mice, in a similar manner to that produced by indomethacin and sodium naproxen. The polyphenols found in the extract were thought to account for the activity reported.
Useful part : Root, Bark, Leaves, Fruits. Seeds.
Mango, the king of fruits, belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. Various varieties of mango grow abundantly in Burma, Africa, Malaysia, India, Java and Sumatra. It is a nutrient packed fruit, extremely rich in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, and enzymes.
Mangoes are one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C and minerals namely potassium, calcium and phosphorus. It is laden with fiber too.
Mangos are delicious and refreshing fruits that can help cool you off during the summer. Mangos were first spotted growing in India and later Southeast Asia over 4,000 years ago. They grow well in tropical temperatures and are found in a great number of places. Many grow wild in the southern region of the United States. There are also many varieties of mangos, including champagne and green. This tropical fruit sells in grocery stores, fruit stands and farmer's markets all over the world and is a special treat to any diet plan. Before you grab a cookie, consider eating a healthy mango instead. Here's a nutritional guide to mangos and how they can add natural sweetness to your diet.
Mangos have a good number of health benefits that many people don't know about. The sweet and fragrant fruit promotes healthy digestion. They also have large amounts of fiber to aid in regularity and the prevention of constipation. Mangos also lower cholesterol and help in fighting some cancers.
Vitamins and Minerals
Mangos have several key nutrients your body needs. Vitamin C fights off colds and illness. Vitamins A and E protect against free radicals, while vitamin A also strengthens bone growth as well. Iron enriches the blood and promotes healthy cells. Potassium maintains proper balance in the body's fluids, helps with nerve function and aids in muscle contraction. Other nutrients include omega-3 and 6, vitamin B6 and copper. The peel is usually not eaten due to its tough and bitter taste, but it provides high concentrations of the nutrients.
One of the most interesting things you can do with mangos is cook with them. Many cultures add mangos into their cuisines as chutneys, sauces and specialty desserts. Mangos are also used to balance out salty and spicy dishes.
Snacking is a big problem when dieting. You may lose track of your diet goals because of snacking on the wrongs foods. Replace chocolates or other sweets with an ice cold mango. This fruit has between 100 to 140 calories depending on the size and ripeness. The more ripe it is the higher the calories due to the natural sugars. Also drink mangos in smoothies as a cool summer drink or add sliced mango to fruit salads. Only add fat free milk or low fat plain yogurt to smoothies. This will help lower the fat content.
In order to maintain the freshness and flavor of your mangos, store them in a refrigerator after ripening them at room temperature. Eat them within five days of refrigeration for the best flavor. Also store mangos for up to a year in a freezer. It's recommended that you peel, cut the mango into slices and freeze on a cookie sheet uncovered before putting the frozen slices into a container. Make sure to put them in an airtight storage container or plastic bag. Do this to prevent freezer burn and other food flavors from contaminating the fruit. Enjoy mangos any time of the year.
Mango versus Other Fruits
Vitamin A and Vitamin C content of Mango versus other Fruits (per 100 grams)-
|Fruit||Vit C (mg/ 100g)||Vit A (Beta carotene) (mcg/100g)||Dietary Fiber|
NIN, Hyderabad, Ramulu, P. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 16 (2003)One 100g mango provides- Around 50 percent of daily vitamin C More than 50 percent of daily vitamin A A good amount of dietary fibre (60 percent insoluble fiber, and 40 percent soluble fiber)Health Promoting Effects
Health promoting effects of mango come from its rich content of nutrients, bioactive compounds and fiber.Lipid and Blood Glucose Lowering Effect
According to a recent animal study conducted by Edralin Lucas, associate professor in Nutritional Sciences in the College of Human Environmental Sciences at Oklahoma State University, incorporating mango in the diet could aid in reducing body fat and controlling blood sugar.
According to Lucas, mango contains nutrients and other bioactive compounds that provide various health benefits. The findings demonstrated mango flesh to be a promising alternative to lipid lowering drugs. Mango was seen to affect several factors involved in fat metabolism as it reduces the circulating level of the hormone leptin. Leptin is produced by fat cells and its concentration in the blood is directly proportional to the body fat content. As body fat stores increase, the levels of leptin also increase. Leptin plays a key role in regulation of appetite. In the study, mice receiving high fat diets containing mango had significantly lower levels of leptin than mice eating the high fat diet alone. In addition to the positive effects of mango on body fat, the mango-containing diets also exhibited glucose lowering properties.
The high levels of fiber, pectin and vitamin C also help lower serum LDL cholesterol levels. Mango is rich in potassium which helps in controlling heart rate and blood pressure.Anti Cancer Effect
A study led by Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Ph.D., Assistant Professor and Director for Research, Institute for Obesity Research and Program Evaluation of Texas, examined the effects of polyphenols found in fresh mangoes on cancerous and non-cancerous breast cells.
The study suggested that mango polyphenols limit inflammatory response in both cancerous and non-cancerous breast cells. The antioxidant compounds in mango fruit have been found to protect against colon, chest, leukemia and prostate cancers. These include quercetin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, fisetin, gallic acid and methyl gallate, and other enzymes.Immune Boosting Effect
The high amount of vitamin C and vitamin A in mangoes, along with different kinds of carotenoids help keep the immune system healthy and strong. Because of their high content of vitamin A, mango is known to promote good eyesight.Alkalinizing Effect
Tartaric acid, malic acid, and traces of citric acid found in mangoes help to maintain the alkalinity of the body. Enzymes in the fruit help in digestion. The fiber too helps in digestion and elimination. The raw mango acts as a coolant in summers. Juice of the green mango
helps cool down the body and prevents sun stroke. Relaxing Effect
Mango is rich in Vitamin B-6 which is essential for Gamma-Amino Butyric acid (GABA) hormone production. GABA is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, inhibiting nerve transmission in the brain, thus causing a calming effect.Metabolically Healthful EffectMangoes are rich in minerals like copper, manganese and zinc
. Copper acts as a co-factor for many important vital enzymes such as cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase. It is essential for production of red blood cells in the body.